The criminal, who in most instances is already burdened with a more or less strong predisposition to mental disorder, upon being placed in prison finds himself at once in a most favorable environment for a mental breakdown. It is true, imprisonment acts more deleteriously upon the psyche of the criminal by passion, the accidental criminal, but even the recidivist who would be expected to feel less keenly the painful loss of freedom, falls a prey to the deleterious effects of prison life. The unfavorable hygienic surroundings which are found in most prisons, the scarcity of air and exercise, readily prepare the way for a breakdown, even in a habitual criminal. Above all, however, it is the emotional shock and depression which invariably accompany the painful loss of freedom, the loneliness and seclusion, which force the prisoner to a raking occupation with his own mind, to a persistent introspection, making him feel so much more keenly the anxiety and apprehension for the future, the remorse for his deed, that play an important role in the production of mental disorders. This is especially true when it concerns an accidental criminal, one who still possesses a high degree of self-respect and honor. Imprisonment furnishes us with a great variety of mental disorders, the origin of which can be traced in a more or less direct manner to the emotional shock and influence upon the psyche which it brings about.
Tuesday, December 31, 2013
We use different analysis techniques for our studying the running time of the several algorithms. Of all we typically use probabilistic analysis to determine the running time of an algorithm in cases in which, due to the presence of an inherent probability distribution, the running time may differ on different inputs of the same size. In some cases, we assume that the inputs conform to a known probability distribution, so that we are averaging the running time over all possible inputs. In other cases, the probability distribution comes not from the inputs but from random choices made during the course of the algorithm. An algorithm whose behavior is determined not only by its input but by the values produced by a random-number generator is a randomized algorithm. We can use randomized algorithms to enforce a probability distribution on the inputs-thereby ensuring that no particular input always causes poor performance-or even to bound the error rate of algorithms that are allowed to produce incorrect results on a limited basis.
Black holes don't emit x-rays themselves, matter falling into black holes heats up and emits x-rays before it is swallowed up. The Hawking radiation is different (but not at all ad hoc, as the article said); it's actually emitted by the black hole itself, and much weaker than the x-rays. Also, black holes are not usually "defined" to be singularities, it’s just that every current theory we have inevitably leads to singularities. String theory is different because the fundamental objects, strings, are extended (they have length), as opposed to points. It's been known for awhile that this would prevent singularities because the strings are spread out. What has come out more recently is the idea that the strings could stretch from the center of the black hole out to the edges, and somehow encode the information there (again, note that the key is that the strings have a length). This way information is not lost, which is VITAL to quantum mechanics.
Tuesday, December 10, 2013
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